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HEDWIG KIESLER

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THE GENIUS YOU DID NOT KNOW ABOUT

In 1933, a beautiful young Austrian woman took off her clothes for a movie director. She ran through the woods, naked. She swam in a lake naked. The movie Ecstasy pushed well beyond the social norms of the period. The most popular movie in 1933 was King Kong. But everyone in Hollywood was talking about that scandalous movie with the gorgeous young Austrian woman.

Louis B Mayer, of the giant studio MGM, said that she was the most beautiful woman in the world. The film was banned practically everywhere, which of course made it even more popular and valuable. Italian Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini reportedly refused to sell his copy at any price.

The star of the film, called Ecstasy, was Hedwig Kiesler. She said that the secret of her beauty was 'to stand there and look stupid'. In reality, Kiesler was anything but stupid. She was a genius. She'd grown up as the only child of a prominent Jewish banker. She was a mathematics prodigy. She excelled at science. As she grew older, she became ruthless, using all the power her body and mind gave her.

Between the sexual roles she played, her tremendous beauty and the power of her intellect, Kiesler would confound the men in her life including her six husbands, two of the most ruthless dictators of the 20th century and one of the greatest movie producers in history. Her beauty made her rich for a time. She is said to have made and spent $30 million in her life. But her greatest accomplishment resulted from her intellect and her invention continues to shape the world we live in today.

You see, this young Austrian starlet would take one of the most valuable technologies ever developed right from under Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler's nose. After fleeing to America, she not only became a major Hollywood star, but her name still appears on one of the most important patents ever granted by the US Patent Office.

Today, when you use your cell phone and as you experience super-fast wireless Internet access via 'Long-Term Evolution' or 'LTE' technology, you will be using an extension of the technology a 20-year-old actress first conceived while sitting at dinner with Hitler.

At the time she made Ecstasy, Kiesler was married to one of the richest men in Austria. Friedrich Mandl was Austria's leading arms maker. His firm would become a key supplier to the Nazis. Mandl used his beautiful young wife as a showpiece at important business dinners with representatives of the Austrian, Italian and German fascist forces.

One of Mandl's favourite topics at these gatherings - which included meals with Hitler and Mussolini - was the technology surrounding radio-controlled missiles and torpedoes. Wireless weapons offered far greater ranges than the wire-controlled alternatives that prevailed at the time.

Kiesler sat through these dinners 'looking stupid', while absorbing everything she heard. As a Jew, Kiesler hated the Nazis. She abhorred her husband's business ambitions. Mandl responded to his wilful wife by imprisoning her in his castle, Schloss Schwarzenau. However in 1937, she managed to escape. She drugged her maid, sneaked out of the castle wearing the maid's clothes and sold her jewellery to finance a trip to London.

She escaped just in time. In 1938, Germany annexed Austria and the Nazis seized Mandl's factory because he was half Jewish. Mandl fled to Brazil and later became an adviser to Argentina's populist president, Juan Peron.

In London, Kiesler arranged a meeting with Louis B Mayer. She signed a long-term contract with him, becoming one of MGM's biggest stars. She appeared in more than 20 films. She was a co-star to Clark Gable, Judy Garland and even Bob Hope. Each of her first seven MGM movies was a blockbuster.

But Kiesler cared far more about fighting the Nazis than about making movies. In 1942 at the height of her fame, she developed a new kind of communications system, optimised for sending coded messages that couldn't be jammed. She was building a system that would allow torpedoes and guided bombs to always reach their targets. She was building a system to kill Nazis.

By the 1940s, both the Nazis and the Allied forces were using the kind of single-frequency radio-controlled technology Kiesler's ex-husband had been peddling. The drawback of this technology was that the enemy could find the appropriate frequency and jam or intercept the signal, thereby interfering with the missile's intended path.

Kiesler's key innovation was to 'change the channel'. It was a way of encoding a message across a broad area of the wireless spectrum. If one part of the spectrum was jammed, the message would still get through on one of the other frequencies being used. The problem was, she could not figure out how to synchronise the frequency changes on both the receiver and the transmitter. To solve the problem, she turned to perhaps the world's first techno-musician, George Anthiel.

Anthiel was an acquaintance of Kiesler who achieved some notoriety for creating intricate musical compositions. He synchronised his melodies across twelve player pianos, producing stereophonic sounds that no one had ever heard before. Kiesler incorporated Anthiel's technology for synchronising his player pianos to radio transmissions. That way, she was able to synchronise the frequency changes between a weapon's receiver and its transmitter. On 11 August 1942, US Patent No 2,292,387 was granted to Antheil and Hedy Kiesler Markey, which was Kiesler's married name at the time.

Most people won't recognise the name Kiesler. And no one would remember the name Hedy Markey. But it's a fair bet than anyone of a certain age will remember one of the great beauties of Hollywood's golden age - Hedy Lamarr. That's the name Louis B Mayer gave to his prize actress. That's the name his movie company made famous.

Meanwhile, almost no one knows that Hedwig Kiesler known as Hedy Lamarr - was one of the great pioneers of wireless communications. Her technology was developed by the US Navy, which has used it ever since. If you have a mobile phone,you are using Lamarr's technology. Her patent sits at the foundation of spread spectrum technology, which you use every day when you log on to a Wi-Fi network or make calls with your Bluetooth-enabled phone.

It lies at the heart of the massive investments being made in LTE wireless technology. Every generation of cell phones and cell towers will provide tremendous increases to wireless network speed and quality, by spreading wireless signals across the entire available spectrum. This kind of encoding is only possible using the kind of frequency switching that Hedwig Kiesler invented as her contribution to defeat the Nazis.